Ethereum Yellowpaper: A Secure Decentralised Generalised Transaction Ledger; Byzantium Version

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by Gavin Wood | Feb. 23, 2018


A detailed, technical explanation of Ethereum with section devoted to the blockchain paradigm, conventions, blocks state and transactions, gas and payments, transaction execution, contract creation, message call, execution model, blocktree to blockchain, block finalization, implementing contracts, and future directions.



The blockchain paradigm when coupled with cryptographically-secured transactions has demonstrated its utility through a number of projects, with Bitcoin being one of the most notable ones. Each such project can be seen as a simple application on a decentralised, but singleton, compute resource. We can call this paradigm a transactional singleton machine with shared-state. Ethereum implements this paradigm in a generalised manner. Furthermore it provides a plurality of such resources, each with a distinct state and operating code but able to interact through a message-passing framework with others. We discuss its design, implementation issues, the opportunities it provides and the future hurdles we envis


Date Published Title Page Count
2017-10-02 Ethereum Yellowpaper EIP-150 Download 32
2018-02-22 Ethereum Beige Paper v0.9.5 Download 21
2017-12-23 Ethereum Off-Whitepaper v0.1.64 Download 21